Heart and Vascular Care
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Knowing the symptoms of AFib, its risk factors, preventative steps, and treatment can help improve the quality of life for those who suffer from this kind of heart problem.
Atrial fibrillation is the most common form of arrhythmia, which occurs when the heart beats in an irregular pattern. It happens when the electrical impulses to the heart are not working correctly, interrupting the normal heartbeat.
In AFfib, the upper chambers of the heart, particularly the top left chamber or left atrium, beats chaotically at a rate of 400 to 600 beats per minute. This results in an uneven and irregular blood flow pattern, as well as variable heart rates, to the bottom chambers of the heart. It ultimately results in a heart rate that is too slow or too fast. Because of this, patients with afib can experience a wide range of symptoms. Most common symptoms include an irregular heartbeat; palpitations, when the heart beats rapidly, pounds harder than normal, or flutters; extreme fatigue; shortness of breath; and chest pain.
“AFib is highly symptomatic for most of our patients,” says Dr. Haseeb Jafri, a cardiologist with Kettering Health. “Although it is not life-threatening, it profoundly impacts the quality of life of patients. It has been associated with an increased risk of heart failure and dementia. People’s lives can be vastly improved if we adequately identify and treat this arrhythmia.”
Most common risk factors
Atrial fibrillation is most common among older people. Because they tend to live longer and the risks for AFib increase with age, it affects women more than men. Those with sleep apnea or who are mildly overweight can also be at a higher risk.
Outside influences and lifestyle choices also can lead to atrial fibrillation. Stress, inflammation in the body, or infections can cause this kind of arrhythmia, as well.
“Any stressful event, such as a procedure or infection, can trigger afib,” Jafri says. “Even something as simple as a person who doesn’t hydrate well taking in more caffeine than they’re used to can provoke an episode.”
Treatment strategies for atrial fibrillation vary, depending on the patient’s situation. “Our top priority is treating the risk of stroke by initiating a blood thinner or considering a left atrial appendage closure device,” explains Dr. Jafri.
“Once the risk for stroke has been assessed and treated, then we talk about the treatment of the actual arrhythmia, including medications and cardiac ablation to control the heart rate and rhythm.”
Cardiac ablation is a procedure that uses flexible catheters to deliver energy, either extreme hot or cold, to change the abnormal heart tissue in patients with afib and help correct the arrhythmia.
As always, prevention is the best medicine. Even those already experiencing AFib can do things to minimize its recurrence. The most important thing you can do to prevent the condition is to follow typical cardiovascular health recommendations, such as maintaining a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular exercise; keeping weight under control and treating any existing conditions such as high blood pressure.
People who suffer from sleep apnea should make sure to have it properly treated, and if AFib is already a concern for you, avoid triggers like excessive caffeine or stress.
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